SUPER STRING TV
Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! https://www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store https://pbsspacetime.com/ It’s time we talked about loop quantum gravity. What exactly is it? What are the loops? And can it really defeat string theory in our quest for a Theory of Everything? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The holy grail of physics is to connect our understanding of the tiny scales of atoms and subatomic particles with that of the vast scales of planets, galaxies, and the entire universe. To connect quantum physics with Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Our search for a theory of quantum gravity is a century old, and we’ve talked quite a bit about it already, including what’s probably the lead contender - string theory. But string theory isn’t the only game in town - or so some physicists believe. There may be another way to reconcile the physics of the tiny and the gigantic - another way to a theory of quantum gravity that avoids a lot of conceptual baggage like tiny wiggling strings made of coiled up extra dimensions. That other way would be loop quantum gravity, and today we’re going to learn exactly what it is. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters: David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst: A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
If higher dimensions exist, they aren't what you think | Exploring Worlds Beyond Our Own
Get free access to over 2500 documentaries on CuriosityStream: https://curiositystream.com/majorprep (use promo code "majorprep" at sign up) STEMerch Store: https://stemerch.com/ Support the Channel: https://www.patreon.com/zachstar PayPal(one time donation): https://www.paypal.me/ZachStarYT Previous video about 4 dimensional spacetime : https://youtu.be/KT5Sk-62-pg ►Books you might enjoy Hyperspace: https://amzn.to/2GFahxL The Elegant Universe: https://amzn.to/30ZNvs6 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/zachstar/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/ImZachStar Join Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/majorprep/ Animations: Brainup Studios (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) ►My Setup: Space Pictures: https://amzn.to/2CC4Kqj Magnetic Floating Globe: https://amzn.to/2VgPdn0 Camera: https://amzn.to/2RivYu5 Mic: https://amzn.to/2BLBkEj Tripod: https://amzn.to/2RgMTNL Equilibrium Tube: https://amzn.to/2SowDrh ►Check out the MajorPrep Amazon Store: https://www.amazon.com/shop/zachstar
The Matter Of Antimatter: Answering The Cosmic Riddle Of Existence
You exist. You shouldn’t. Stars and galaxies and planets exist. They shouldn’t. The nascent universe contained equal parts matter and antimatter that should have instantly obliterated each other, turning the Big Bang into the Big Fizzle. And yet, here we are: flesh, blood, stars, moons, sky. Why? Come join us as we dive deep down the rabbit hole of solving the mystery of the missing antimatter. MODERATOR: Brian Greene PARTICIPANTS: Marcela Carena, Janet Conrad, Michael Doser, Hitoshi Murayama, Neil Turok OPENING FILM: Animation by Eoin Duffy of Studio Belly, written by Justin Weinstein and Brian Greene MORE ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS: https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/programs/matter-antimatter-answering-cosmic-riddle-existence/ This program is part of the Big Ideas Series which is supported in part by the John Templeton Foundation. SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel for all the latest from WSF VISIT our Website: http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/ LIKE us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/worldsciencefestival FOLLOW us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WorldSciFest TOPICS: - The Discovery of Antimatter opening film 00:00 - Brian Greene Introduction 04:00 - Participant Introductions 04:54 - What led Paul Dirac to his thinking? 07:25 - Can we create Antimatter? 22:25 - How does the universe create matter and antimatter and yet there is still matter left around us? 29:42 - Using Neutrinos to detect Antimatter 44:55 - The difference in Neutrinos compared to Antimatter 56:30 - Searching for hints of how to prove the Grand Unified theory 01:10:10 - Drowning in theories 01:22:00 - The applications for Antimatter 01:33:01 Filmed live at the 2018 World Science festival.
The Emergent Universe
Join us at: http://www.inspiringphilosophy.org To help support this ministry click here: https://www.patreon.com/inspiringphilosophy?ty=h Science has shown our universe is emergent and in this video, we explain why. Sources: A Thin Sheet of Reality: The Universe as a Hologram: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnETCBOlzJs Spooky Action 101: Is Space as We Know It a Kind of Illusion? | George Musser https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Af8RGeco6kg From Planck data to Planck era: Observational tests of Holographic Cosmology: https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.04878 Entanglement is necessary for emergent classicality in all physical theories: https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.08028 The Big Picture: The Talk - Sean Carroll http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2016/05/24/the-big-picture-the-talk/ Space Emerging from Quantum Mechanics - Sean Carroll http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2016/07/18/space-emerging-from-quantum-mechanics/ Time from quantum entanglement: an experimental illustration: https://arxiv.org/abs/1310.4691 Closer To Truth w/ Fotini Markopoulou https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-Q4m5T7knM Measurements on the reality of the wavefunction: https://www.nature.com/articles/nphys3233 Rebooting the Cosmos: Is the Universe the Ultimate Computer? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=atMuFCpxnUQ The Physical World as a Virtual Reality - Brian Whitworth https://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.0337.pdf Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.02269 Quantum structure in cognition - Diederik Aerts https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022249609000558 Information processing in brain microtubules: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0af6/92b49a088ae9f96dba1cad864c226cba9414.pdf Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep07303 Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: Correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956566313001590 Experimental Studies on a Single Microtubule - Anirban Bandyopadhyay https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQngptkPYE8 Deep inside cells, a clue to the mind: https://www.telegraphindia.com/1150403/jsp/nation/story_12399.jsp Linoleic acid: Is this the key that unlocks the quantum brain? Insights linking broken symmetries in molecular biology, mood disorders and personalistic emergentism: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395787/ Non-linear dynamics in biological microtubules: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/880/1/012010/pdf Multi-level memory-switching properties of a single brain microtubule: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4793995?journalCode=apl Quantum Cognition and Brain Microtubules - Stuart Hameroff https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mm6Mt9BoZ_M Quantum cognition: a new theoretical approach to psychology: http://www.cell.com/trends/cognitive-sciences/fulltext/S1364-6613(15)00099-6 A Construct of Social Reality - John Searle The Mysterious Flame - Colin McGinn Mind and Cosmos - Thomas Nagel Debate - Sam Harris, Michael Shermer vs D.Chopra, J.Houston - The Future of God: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jRyMMy8exfc More Than Matter - Keith Ward Network Cosmology: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep00793 On the complexity and the information content of cosmic structures: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.09348 The Strange Similarity of Neuron and Galaxy Networks: http://nautil.us/issue/50/emergence/the-strange-similarity-of-neuron-and-galaxy-networks The Origin of Time In Conscious Agents: http://cogsci.uci.edu/~ddhoff/HoffmanTime.pdf Entangling Conscious Agents - Donald Hoffman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6eWG7x_6Y5U The Introspective Argument: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4l1lQMCOguw The Death of Materialism: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wM0IKLv7KrE The Case for the Soul: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBsI_ay8K70&list=PL1mr9ZTZb3TX_4LthrdGqACsqIWKd2gs- Was Life Inevitable? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_H0yoBiBM5s Music Credits: Battle of Kings: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oA9MinkeHT4 The Land of the Wizard: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpNXyjmI0Q4 Evan King - Singularity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URe6xwBEEao Digital Fortress: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIxYqsgDdV8 Video Copilot - Caverns Anomaly Detected: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaCNZF40p1Q Rallying the Defense: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ruPk4RD19Nw
Loop Quantum Gravity Reveals What Came Before the Big Bang
The closest thing we have to an all-encompassing framework that explains all particles and forces is represented by the Standard Model of particle physics. But this model is flawed because it does not explain gravity.A theory of everything has to be able to reconcile quantum mechanics with the general theory of relativity. This reconciliation appears to be possible with a theory called “Loop Quantum Gravity” -- or LQG. What is it? The theory of LQG attempts to show that this geometric fabric of space-time is not continuous as Einstein presumed, but is itself quantum, made up of discrete quanta. This is akin to the clothes or sweater you might be wearing right now. Even though it looks smooth from far away, if you looked at it closely, you would see threads, nodes and loops woven together. These are the quanta or bits that your clothing is made of. This is different than every other theory including string theory. Because even in string theory, space is the background or the canvas, on which strings vibrate. In LQG this space-time background is itself quantized . So this means that distance has a minimum quantity about equivalent to the plank length or 10 to the -33 cm. Similarly, area has a minimum value of 10 to the -66 cm squared, and volume has a minimum value of 10 to the -99 cm cubed - below which it cannot go. This is super tiny. LQG says that there are about 10 to the 99 quanta of volume in every cubic centimeter of space. This quantum of volume is so tiny that there are more such quanta in a cubic centimeter than there are cubic centimeters in the entire visible universe -- (10 to the 85) And Time itself has a minimum quantity as well which is 10 to the -43 seconds or close to plank time. And what do these space-time quanta look like? They are like loops. The nodes that intersect is where the quanta volumes of space reside. It has a volume that is a multiple of the plank volume 10 to the -99 cubic centimeters. The loops in between the nodes represent 2 dimensional areas. And large quantities of these loops and nodes are called “spin networks.” -- because their properties are related to particle qualities called spins. And Time is defined by the moves that rearrange this spin network. The spin network, when combined with these quantum movements of time, is called a spin foam. Time does not flow like a river in the spin foam, it ticks like a digital clock. And each such quantum tick or movement of the spin network is 1 X 10 to the -43 second. Every location in the spin network where a quantum move takes place, time has ticked once. When mass and energy are added to this spin foam, the shape of the volumes of the spin network is distorted. This distorts space and time, because any movement of these quanta also affects the time quanta. Time is essentially movement of these volume quanta. And this distortion of space and time is what we perceive as gravity. The exciting thing about LQG is that it appears to explain some of cosmology’s greatest questions, like, what came before the big bang. According to LQG the big bang could not have started with a singularity which would have been infinitesimally small, and of infinite density…because there is a limit to how small space can become, 10 to the -99 cubic centimeters. This is the smallest volume of space according to LQG. This also implies a maximum energy density that this minimum volume of space could have had. And once that maximum energy density was reached, it would have repelled any additional energy added to it -- like a sponge that gets saturated with water, will repel any additional water. So LQG predicts that the universe did not start with a big bang, but with a big bounce. The universe was big at one time. It then contracted. It bounced and then exploded from this bounce. So prior to what we call the big bang, the universe was in a contracting phase of a prior universe. And when it reached a minimum plank volume, all additional energy bounced off and created what looks to us like a big bang. So LQG has a lot going for it. Is it the theory of everything? No, not quite yet, because it needs to be confirmed with observation. And, its mathematics needs to be further developed to make dark energy and dark matter emerge. But, in my view, Loop Quantum Gravity has brought us closer to a theory of everything than anything else over the past 100 years. #loopquantumgravity #LQG Citations: http://universe-review.ca/R01-07-quantumfoam.htm https://www.edge.org/conversation/lee_smolin-loop-quantum-gravity-lee-smolin http://www.phys.lsu.edu/faculty/pullin/sciam.pdf http://www.einstein-online.info/elementary/quantum/loops.html http://igpg.gravity.psu.edu/people/Ashtekar/articles/rovelli03.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSKVZah9-c0 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Loop_quantum_gravity.jpg http://inspirehep.net/record/882216/plots https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/big-bounce/
Why Space Itself May Be Quantum in Nature - with Jim Baggott
Loop quantum gravity aims to unify the theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics, as explained by Jim Baggott. Subscribe for regular science videos: http://bit.ly/RiSubscRibe Buy Jim's book "Quantum Space": https://geni.us/7cLy Quantum gravity is the holy grail for modern theoretical physicists – a single structure that brings together the two great theories of the 20th century: quantum mechanics and general relativity. One widely-known solution is string theory, which emerged from particle physics. In this talk, Jim Baggott will describe the other approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity. This theory starts from general relativity, borrows many ideas and techniques from quantum mechanics, and predicts that space itself is quantum in nature. Watch the Q&A: https://youtu.be/XE33mycJNNI Jim Baggott is an award-winning science writer. He trained as a scientist, completing a doctorate in chemical physics at the University of Oxford in the early 80s, before embarking on post-doctoral research studies at Oxford and at Stanford University in California. This talk was filmed at the Ri on 12 February 2019. --- A very special thank you to our Patreon supporters who help make these videos happen, especially: Darren Jones, Dave Ostler, David Lindo, Elizabeth Greasley, Greg Nagel, Ivan Korolev, Joe Godenzi, Lester Su, Osian Gwyn Williams, Radu Tizu, Rebecca Pan, Robert Hillier, Roger Baker, Sergei Solovev and Will Knott. --- The Ri is on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/TheRoyalInstitution and Twitter: http://twitter.com/ri_science and Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/royalinstitution and Tumblr: http://ri-science.tumblr.com/ Our editorial policy: http://www.rigb.org/home/editorial-policy Subscribe for the latest science videos: http://bit.ly/RiNewsletter
Rethinking Reality: Space, Time and Gravity
With Sam Gralla. At the dawn of the twentieth century, Einstein revolutionized our conception of reality, showing that space and time are not merely the stage on which the show unfolds, but dynamical entities that stretch, bend, and vibrate to give rise to the force we know as gravity. A century later, the vibrations of spacetime have been directly detected as gravitational radiation from colliding black holes, confirming Einstein’s prediction and ushering in a new era in observational astronomy. How did physicists measure these minuscule vibrations, and what does it mean for our understanding of the universe? And what is the next revolution, fomenting right now, in our conception of space and time? Part of the UA Science Lecture Series.
Discrete Time Crystal an objective understanding
There are many videos on Time Crystals, but this video is different because it explains a reason for the odd characteristics of Time Crystals within a process that we see and feel as the continuum of time. Discrete time crystals form their own spacetime geometry forming their own future relative to their structure and the photon energy that was fed into the system. At the smallest scale of this process the kinetic energy of the random fluctuation are represented by Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle ∆×∆pᵪ≥h/4π with the future unfolding photon by photon with the movement of positive and negative charge. We have a universal process with the future coming into existence with each new photon electron coupling or dipole moment. The future is an emergent property unfolding relative to the energy and momentum of each object or individual. Discrete Time crystals are just a distorted form of this process forming sub-harmonic oscillations relative to their structure and the energy and momentum of the original laser. This video uses the University of Maryland's Time crystals experiment that was created by taking a conga line of 10 Ytterbium ions, all with entangled electron spins.